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Table 5 Summary of outcomes utilised to characterise success

From: Supervision, support and mentoring interventions for health practitioners in rural and remote contexts: an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the literature to identify mechanisms for successful outcomes

Outcome Studies examining outcome
Service outcomes  
Perceived improvement in quality, safety of care or higher standards of practice 15, 39, 41, 47, 49, 54, 70, 71, 77
Change in organisational culture 34, 36, 37, 44
Improvement in access to care and clinic efficiency (perceived) 41 53, 56, 76
Improved ‘actioning’ of issues 33, 34
Increased certification of practitioners 74
Cost and time savings 71
Reduction in travel 71
Improved referral pathways, connections or collaboration 66
Staff (including programme) outcomes  
Increases in self-reported knowledge, confidence and competence in practice, skills and/or clinical decision-making 15, 33, 41, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, 54, 59, 60, 61, 71, 72, 75, 76
Content or structure of material or programme perceived as appropriate and relevant by participants 44-46, 49, 53, 54
Retention of staff 39, 40, 49, 66, 75
Greater understanding of role of mentoring or supervision 37, 36, 44
Capacity to attend or participate in programme 49, 52
Improved collaboration with other health workers 41
Knowledge gains 14, 34
Improved attitude towards supervision or mentoring 36, 37
Job satisfaction 15, 71
Improved staff well-being 43
Improved knowledge of roles and knowledge sharing 54
Improved reflective practice 66
Programme outcomes  
Attendance and completion rates 14, 33, 34, 36, 37, 43, 45, 54, 57, 59, 72, 76
Sustainability of programme 34, 36, 37, 43, 47, 48, 54, 56
Knowledge translation to other rural practitioners and organisations 48, 54, 76
Engagement with the programme 33, 54, 59
Satisfaction with the programme (including perceived positive use of staff time) 33, 52, 66
Attainment of learning goals 49, 52
Patient outcomes  
Staff perceived improvements in screening procedures 41
Reduced admission rates from a rural to a regional centre and reduced transfer of clients for care to regional centres 53, 76
Client satisfaction with services 61
Improved quality and completeness of health information and services received by clients 56