
Ophthalmologists

Cataract surgeons

Ophthalmic COs

Ophthalmic nurses

Optometrists

ML refractionists



n

R

Pvalue

n

R

Pvalue

n

R

Pvalue

n

R

Pvalue

n

R

Pvalue

n

R

Pvalue


GDP

20

0.6226

0.0034
^{a}

14

0.4637

0.0949

7

−0.2857

0.5345

18

0.4118

0.0895

12

0.5594

0.0586

16

0.2794

0.2946

GHE

18

0.4159

0.0861

12

−0.0699

0.8290

6

0.2571

0.6228

16

0.4147

0.1102

11

0.7364

0.0098
^{a}

14

0.1033

0.7253

HDI

20

0.3263

0.1603

14

0.4286

0.1263

7

−0.1429

0.7599

18

0.3746

0.1256

12

0.4126

0.1826

16

0.5853

0.0172*

Population size

20

−0.1203

0.6134

14

−0.0198

0.9465

7

−0.2143

0.6445

18

−0.4799

0.0439
^{a}

12

−0.1678

0.6021

16

−0.0706

0.7950

Geographic size

20

0.0421

0.8601

14

−0.0901

0.7593

7

−0.7857

0.0362
^{a}

18

−0.4159

0.0861

12

0.3007

0.3423

16

−0.2676

0.3163

 Table legend: countries with ≤ one practitioner in any cadre have been excluded from analyses. R = Spearman’s rho. Pvalues in bold indicate significance at the 10% level, ^{a}at 5%, tested using Spearman rank correlations. CO: clinical officer; GDP: gross domestic product; GHE: government health expenditure; HDI: human development index; ML: midlevel.