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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of all dependent and continuous independent variables, the secondary tier of medical care as a unit of analysis (n = 346) The numbers after each variable name indicate the years used in the analyses

From: Evaluating the effect of Japan’s 2004 postgraduate training programme on the spatial distribution of physicians

  1998 to 2002 2006 to 2010  
  Mean SD a 95% CIs b Mean SD a 95% CIs b P -value c
Changes in number of all physicians 36.53 62.10 [29.97 to 43.1] 48.82 120.76 [36.05 to 61.59] .093
Changes in number of physicians working at the hospital 17.43 38.98 [13.31 to 21.55] 36.53 93.92 [26.6 to 46.46] < .001
Changes in number of physicians working at the clinics 19.10 35.83 [15.32 to 22.89] 12.29 35.07 [8.58 to 16.00] .012
Number of all physicians 1998/2006 703.00 1,000.90 [628.3 to 777.7] 786.10 1,144.90 [700.6 to 871.5] .151
Number of physicians working at the hospital 1998/2006 451.20 670.90 [401.1 to 501.3] 504.80 770.70 [447.2 to 562.3] .168
Number of physicians working at the clinic 1998/2006 251.80 346.80 [226.0 to 277.7] 281.30 390.70 [252.2 to 310.5] .138
Age-adjusted mortality 1999/2006 1.15 0.07 [1.15 to 1.16] 0.99 0.06 [0.99 to 1.00] < .001
Physician densityd 1998/2006 1.70 0.80 [1.64 to 1.76] 1.85 0.85 [1.78 to 1.91] .001
Hospital physician densitye 1998/2006 1.07 0.63 [1.03 to 1.12] 1.16 0.68 [1.11 to 1.12] .011
Clinic physician densityf 1998/2006 0.63 0.22 [0.61 to 0.64] 0.68 0.23 [0.67 to 0.70] < .001
Total population (thousands) 1998/2006 364.20 399.50 [334.40 to 394.00] 367.20 417.70 [336.00 to 398.40] .891
Per capita income (thousands)g 1998/2006 11.75 3.31 [11.51 to 12] 11.36 3.15 [11.12 to 11.59] .023
Percent of the population with a college-level education 2000/((2000 + 2010)/2)h 10.81 5.25 [10.26 to 11.37] 11.92 5.39 [11.35 to 12.49] .006
Unemployment rate ((1995 + 2000)/2)i/2005 4.06 1.19 [3.93 to 4.18] 5.78 1.50 [5.63 to 5.94] < .001
Percent of white-collar workers ((1995 + 2000)/2)i/2005 14.42 2.40 [14.17 to 14.68] 13.96 2.25 [13.73 to 14.2] .010
Socioeconomic status (SES) composite indexj -0.02 1.02 [-0.13 to 0.09] 0.02 0.98 [-0.08 to 0.12] .593
Number of primary students/school 1998/2006 281.20 133.00 [271.3 to 291.1] 274.00 138.80 [263.7 to 284.4] .325
Crime rate 1998/2006 1.47 0.73 [1.42 to 1.52] 1.10 0.53 [1.06 to 1.14] < .001
Temperature (°C) 1998/2006 15.82 2.53 [15.3 to 16.34] 15.59 2.36 [15.10 to 16.07] .517
Humidity (%) 1998/2006 70.28 4.70 [69.31 to 71.25] 69.44 4.36 [68.54 to 70.33] .205
Discomfort indexk 60.05 3.87 [59.25 to 60.84] 59.68 3.58 [58.94 to 60.41] .500
Hospital beds per 1,000 population 1998/2006 13.89 4.75 [13.54 to 14.24] 13.89 4.62 [13.55 to 14.24] .990
  1. aStandard deviation.
  2. bConfidence intervals.
  3. cP-value of mean equality test.
  4. dNumber of all physicians per 1,000 population.
  5. eNumber of physicians working at hospitals per 1,000 population.
  6. fNumber of physicians working at health care facilities per 1,000 population.
  7. gJapanese yen was converted into US$ using the rate that applied in March 2013 of approximately 95 Japanese yen per US$.
  8. hThe percent of college-level education is only collected every 10 years. Data from 2000 were applied to the time period 1998 to 2002, and the mean of 2000 and 2010 data were applied to the time period 2006 to 2010.
  9. iUnemployment rates and the percentage of white-collar workers were calculated using the mean of 1995 and 2000 data and applied to the time period 1998 to2002.
  10. jA composite index of socioeconomic indicators created from the percent of the population with a college-level education, percent of white-collar workers, the unemployment rate, and per capita income.
  11. kCalculated by using temperature and humidity.