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Table 4 Summary of push and pull factors identified by respondents

From: Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options

Push factors Pull factors
Job security
No jobs available Jobs available; colleagues, friends and recruiters telling them about opportunities
Lack of promotions  
Risk of losing jobs due to lack of funds  
Working conditions
Low salaries Reasonable remuneration – able to save money
Non-payment of salaries (non-payment of housing allowance)  
Deteriorating work environment/facilities  
Inadequate medicine and equipment  
Significant stress, overtime and generally poor conditions of service resulting in fatigue and burn-out Regular workload
Inability to treat patients due to poor services and medicine  
Impossible patient-health care provider ratios, making it difficult to give quality care Reasonable conditions of work
Poor health human resources planning  
Economic and political considerations
Disarray in severely economically depressed SSA countries Canada a wealthy, democratic country
Political and racial upheaval Not corrupt
Gender discrimination  
Physical security
Carjackings Safe country
Muggings  
Significant criminality  
Gender-based violence  
Significant exposure to HIV – risk of infection through treatment of patients  
Quality of life
Poor accommodation Canada tolerant, multi-ethnic
Lack of transport to go to work Good quality of life
Inability to live a decent life  
Education
Diminishing quality of education for children Greater opportunities for children – good education and ability to earn a decent living