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Table 4 Risk factors associated with exposure to workplace violence

From: Workplace violence towards workers in the emergency departments of Palestinian hospitals: a cross-sectional study

  Bivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  F % χ 2 Pvalue Adjusted ORa 95% CI Pvalue
Ownership        
 Governmental 259 80.2 10.748 0.001 1.14 0.392–3.319 0.809
 Non-governmental 79 65.3    1.0 Reference  
Monthly ED visits        
 <3 000 visits 58 63.0 14.120 0.001 1.0 Reference 0.086
 3 000–9 000 visits 70 72.9    1.9 0.652–5.541  
 >9 000 visits 210 82.0    3.476 1.043–11.585  
Age        
 ≤30 years 172 81.5 6.428 0.007 2.299 1.309–4.036 0.004
 >30 years 166 71.2    1.0 Reference  
Job category        
 Clinicians (nurse/physician) 239 78.9 3.975 0.032 1.654 0.979–2.797 0.06
 Administrative 99 70.2    1.0 Reference  
Experience in ED        
 <5 years 108 73.5 6.330 0.042 0.984 0.504–1.922 0.017
 5–9 years 117 83.6    2.39 1.141–5.006  
 ≥10 years 113 72.0    1.0 Reference  
Gender        
 Male 257 75.4 0.467 0.294 1.0 Reference  
 Female 81 78.6    1.371 0.77–2.443 0.284
Region        
 West Bank 99 75.6 0.031 0.475 1.0 Reference  
 Gaza 239 76.4    1.02 0.569–1.827 0.948
Education        
 <Bachelor’s degree 107 74.3 0.389 0.305 1.0 Reference  
 ≥Bachelor’s degree 231 77.0    1.185 0.695–2.020 0.533
  1. OR: Odds ratios, CI: Confidence interval, Reference: reference category in the logistic regression model, χ2: Pearson chi-square.
  2. aAdjusted for gender, age, job category, education, hospital ownership, monthly visits to ED, and experience in ED, and region covariates.