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Table 3 Evaluated causes of crises

From: Human resource crises in German hospitals—an explorative study

Crisis Cause M SD
Staff shortages Demographic change 5.36 1.55
  Sparsely populated area 5.10 1.70
  Insufficient immigration of skilled personnel 4.66 1.68
  Poor working conditions 4.58 1.97
  High incidence of occupational illness 3.13 1.54
Acute loss of personnel following a pandemic Lack of personnel 4.53 2.06
  High-work strain (e.g. forced to work despite being ill). 4.24 1.99
  Poor hygiene 4.16 1.89
  Other plausible attack on staff health 3.05 1.88
Damage to reputation, internal information is made public Dissatisfied employees 5.75 1.54
  Lack of data protection measures 4.10 1.94
  Sabotage 3.93 2.09
  Business interests of competitors 2.80 1.61
Insufficient communication during restructuring Under-appreciation of effective communication 5.85 1.19
  Inappropriate target group 5.52 1.28
  Poor communication timing 5.21 1.48
  Lack of training in effective communication 5.19 1.46
  Conflict among staff 4.93 1.47
Bullying Poor or lack of management 5.90 1.36
  Conflict within the team 5.74 1.37
  Jealousy, frustration 5.54 1.47
  Unclear tasks and responsibilities 4.94 1.66
  High workload 4.78 1.86
Misuse of drugs by superior Easy access to medication 5.36 1.78
  Strenuous workload 4.73 1.94
  Protection of a colleague 4.53 1.82
  Increased liberalization (attitudes, approaches, etc.) 3.41 1.77
  1. M mean; SD standard deviation