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Table 1 Motivators: according to behavioural economics theory

From: The effect of payment and incentives on motivation and focus of community health workers: five case studies from low- and middle-income countries

Behavioural economists perspectives on motivation: internal and external

Internal motivators (Pink [9])

External motivators (Heyman and Ariely [11])

Autonomy: acting with choice, does not exclude interdependence with others. The opposite of autonomy is control. Control leads to compliance while autonomy leads to engagement.

Monetary markets: when payments were given in the form of cash, effort seemed to stem from reciprocation and was sensitive to the magnitude of the payment.

Mastery: the desire to be better and better at something that matters.

Social markets and gifts: when payments were given in the form of gifts or when payments were not mentioned, effort seemed to stem from altruistic motives and was largely insensitive to the magnitude of the payment.

Purpose and connectedness: those who work in service for a greater purpose than themselves can achieve more than those that do not.

Mixed markets: the mere mention of monetary payment was sufficient to switch the perceived relationship from a social-market relationship to a money-market relationship.