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Box 1 Medical training grades in Ireland

From: Gone for good? An online survey of emigrant health professionals using Facebook as a recruitment tool

Intern – the grade undertaken immediately upon completion of medical school. Completion of this grade is required as a component of under-graduate medical education in Ireland.
Senior House Officer (SHO) – this grade comprises the first (initial) stage of specialist training in hospital medicine and is usually 2 years in duration.
Specialist Registrar (SpR) – this grade comprises the second (higher) stage of specialist training in hospital medicine and can be up to 7 years in duration depending on the specialty.
GP Trainee – this grade comprises the combined equivalent of SHO and SpR training in general practice and is 4 years in duration.
Registrar/Senior Registrar – this is a grade, usually undertaken between SHO and SpR grades in hospital medicine. This grade is not officially recognised as a training grade although some posts may be assigned as training posts.
Consultant – this is the pinnacle grade in hospital medical training and comprised those doctors who have completed their SpR training and who can practice independently.
General Practitioner (GP) – the equivalent grade of a consultant in general practice.
Clinical Attachment/Observer – this is not an official medical grade but rather a shadowing role that is used to give the doctor familiarity with a new hospital or health system environment. This role is unpaid.