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Table 4 Summary of direct and total indirect effects of gender and age on the number of working hours for GPs under the age of 60 (results are significant at 90% and 99% confidence level)

From: Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time use study

Effects on working hours:   Gender    Age  
   β/corr. %   β/corr.a %
Direct effect   − 0.199 74.8   0.097 33.8
Indirect effects   − 0.067 25.2   0.190 66.2
- via employment position (0.053*–0.327) − 0.017 6.5 (− 0.448*− 0.327) 0.146 50.8
- via age/gender (− 0.204*0.097) − 0.020 7.5 (− 0.204*− 0.199) 0.041 14.1
- via age/gender and employment position (− 0.204*− 0.448*− 0.327) − 0.030 11.2 (− 0.204*0.053*− 0.327) 0.004 1.2
Correlation coefficient   − 0.266 100.0   0.288 100.0
  1. aThe sum of the direct and indirect effects deviate from the correlation coefficient as a result of rounding up or down