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Table 2 Health professionals’ perceived changes to staff roles (2010/2011–2015/2016) and independence in task substitution (without physician supervision) by country and Scope-of-Practice

From: Task shifting between physicians and nurses in acute care hospitals: cross-sectional study in nine countries

  Breast cancer Acute myocardial infarction
  Changes to staff roles over past 5 yearsa Task substitution without physician supervisionb Changes to staff roles over past 5 yearsa Task substitution without physician supervisionb
  % HP % HP % HP % HP
Countries with SoP expansion [1] 74.0*** 58.6*** 61.7*** 48.9***
Countries with no/limited SoP expansion [2] 38.7*** 24.0*** 37.3*** 29.2***
By country
Netherlands 78.7° 51.3° 65.3 38.2
England (UK) 72.3 64.2 54.4 51.1
Scotland (UK) 73.6 55.3 65.9 53.3
Czech Republic 45.5 18.1 50.7 7.4
Germany 43.2 27.4 29.1 45.7
Italy 30.0° –°° 64.8 51.4
Norway 38.7° 33.3° 44.2 30.4
Poland 43.5° 17.6° 28.7 36
Turkey 23.2 13.0° 21.9 25.9
Total average c 50.8*** 41.2*** 44.1*** 36.9***
Total N 687 349 790 349
  1. [1] England, Scotland, Netherlands, [2] Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Turkey
  2. HP Health Professionals, SoP Scope-of-Practice
  3. ***p value < .001, ° = n < 50 observations, °° = value not shown, because n < 10 observations
  4. aWording in questionnaire: “Have staff roles changed on the [breast cancer/AMI, respectively] care pathway within the last 5 years?”
  5. bExact wording: “Tasks formerly done by physicians are now done by new professions or existing professions with new independent roles without supervision”
  6. cPearson chi-squared test comparing country-level mean with total average (all-country mean)