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Table 5 Overview of single HRM practices in relation to performance outcomes

From: The effect of human resource management on performance in hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic literature review

Authors, year, country HRM practices Employee outcome Team outcome Organizational outcome Patient outcome MMAT Score
1. Training and education
 Ajayi, 2013, Nigeria [75] training nurses on computer-skills    improved efficiency ***
 Eygelaar & Stellenberg, 2012, S.Africa [94] training on nursing care    improved quality of care ****
 Issahaku et al., 2012, Ghana [100] training (clinical and administrative staff) improved performance    ****
 Jacobs & Roodt, 2008, S.Africa [102] knowledge sharing organizational culture /learning practice among professional nurses reduced turnover intention    ****
 Esan et al., 2014, Nigeria [148] training residence doctors improved job satisfaction    ***
 Letlape et al., 2014, S.Africa [150] in-service training on confidence building    improved quality of care **
 Mduma et al., 2015, Tanzania [155] simulation training on delivery and neonatal care     decreased mortality **
 Bergman et al., 2008, Tanzania [146] trauma team training of physicians and nurses improved job satisfaction improved team performance   *
 Uys et al., 2005, S.Africa [166] training on supportive supervision improved job satisfaction   improved quality of care **
 Crofts et al., 2015, Zimbabwe [172] onsite-team training on obstetric emergency care   improved team performance in clinical practices   improved maternal deaths **
2. Salary and compensation
 Aberese-Ako et al., 2014, Ghana [69] incentives /monthly transport allowances improved performance    ****
 Nwude & Uduji, 2013, Nigeria [120] fair and adequate compensation improved job performance    **
 Atambo et al., 2013, Kenya [83] implementing incentive systems improved performance   improved efficiency of service delivery ***
 Ashmore & Gilson, 2015, S. Africa [80] additional wage incentives for specialists improved retention    ****
3. Rostering and scheduling
 McIntosh & Stellenberg, 2009, S. Africa [154] implementing staff control strategy/scheduling/ to control moonlighting turnover intention continued (not improved)   improved quality of care **
 Nyathi & Jooste, 2008, S. Africa [121] managing reutilization and workload reduced absenteeism among nurses    ***
 Osisioma et al., 2015, Nigeria [122] implementation of flexible working arrangements improved performance    **
 Rispel et al., 2014, S.Africa [126] managing rostering & scheduling to control moonlighting reduced intention to leave    ****
4. Task shifting
 Ferrinho et al., 2015, Mozambique & Zambia [95] task shifting practice    reduced staff shortage and improved quality of care ***
 Jennings et al., 2011, Benin [103] task shifting practices for lay nurse aides    improved efficiency of health care **
 Olson et al., 2014, Malawi [161] task shifting in patient triage and treatment    improved quality of care reduced inpatient mortality ***
 Sanjana et al., 2009, Zamia [164] task shifting for lay counselors    reduced staff shortage, reduced rate of errors and **
 Galukande et al., 2013, Uganda [96] task shifting (surgical) practice    improved staff shortage decreased mortality ****
 O’Malley et al., 2014, Namibia [162] task shifting from doctors to nurses    improved quality of service ***
5. Managing employees
 Nigussie & Demissie, 2013, Ethiopia [158] leadership styles of nurse managers increased job satisfaction    ****
 Okurame, 2009, Nigeria [160] mentoring practices improved job satisfaction    ****