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Table 3 Sensitivity analyses for the association between the density of health professionals and the under-five mortality rate in rural China, 2008–2014

From: The impact of the health care workforce on under-five mortality in rural China

Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Unadjusted U5MR Interaction with GDP trajectory Interaction with equipment value (continuous) Interaction with equipment value (dummy) Without female illiteracy rate
Total HP − 0.035** − 0.007 − 0.042 − 0.024** − 0.026**
  0.010 0.007 0.044 0.007 0.007
Trajectory of GDP per capita (medium group as the reference)
 Total HP # slowly rising   − 0.065**    
  0.015    
 Total HP # rapidly rising   − 0.035+    
  0.021    
Total HP # Value of equipment per bed (continuous)    0.001   
   0.004   
Total HP # Value of equipment per bed (high group as the reference)     − 0.005  
    0.006  
GDP per capita (log) − 0.087*   − 0.098** − 0.100** − 0.103**
0.041   0.026 0.027 0.026
Female illiteracy rate 0.005* 0.003+ 0.004* 0.004*  
0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002  
Provincial health expenditure/GDP (high group as the reference) 0.037+ 0.047** 0.051** 0.051** 0.050**
0.019 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015
Value of equipment per bed (log) − 0.001 −0.014 − 0.021   − 0.018*
0.012 0.009 0.015   0.008
Value of equipment per bed (high group as the reference)     0.019  
    0.023  
Number of observations 7 618 7 653 7 653 7 653 7 653
Adjusted R2 (within group) 0.327 0.426 0.423 0.423 0.423
  1. HP health professionals, GDP gross domestic product
  2. Numbers in the cells are fixed effects estimators with their standard errors underneath
  3. +p < 0.1; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
  4. All models include fixed effects for years and intercepts, but these values are not shown in the table
  5. Model 1 shows the result when the dependent variable is the log of unadjusted U5MR which does not consider undercounting of child mortality. Model 2 analyzes the modification effects of GDP trajectory on the relationship between health professionals and U5MR, but without GDP per capita as a covariate. Model 3 and model 4 analyze modification effect of equipment value per bed (continuous scale in model 3, dichotomous scale by median of each year in model 4) in the relationship between health professionals and U5MR. Model 5 shows the results without the female illiteracy rate as a covariate