Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Analysis of association between receipt of ASHA services for the most recent birth and individual characteristics using logistic regression and the 2011–2012 IHDS survey

From: The impact of India’s accredited social health activist (ASHA) program on the utilization of maternity services: a nationally representative longitudinal modelling study

  Restricted clusters* (n = 7 985) Rural areas only (n = 6 854) High-focus states (n = 4 662)
  Odds ratio(95% CI) p value Odds ratio(95% CI) p value Odds ratio(95% CI) p value
Maternal age (years)          
 15–19 1    1    1   
 20–24 1.04 (0.74–1.48) 0.8057 1.13 (0.78–1.63) 0.5186 0.99 (0.62–1.58) 0.9628
 25–29 0.80 (0.57–1.13) 0.2047 0.87 (0.60–1.26) 0.4534 0.83 (0.52–1.33) 0.4485
 30–34 0.63 (0.44–0.91) 0.0131 0.65 (0.44–0.97) 0.0339 0.62 (0.38–1.04) 0.0683
 35–39 0.64 (0.43–0.95) 0.0265 0.69 (0.46–1.06) 0.0893 0.61 (0.36–1.04) 0.0709
 ≥ 40 0.63 (0.41–0.99) 0.0461 0.70 (0.43–1.14) 0.1505 0.58 (0.32–1.04) 0.0665
Education         
 No education 1    1    1   
 1–5 years 1.13 (0.97–1.31) 0.1178 1.11 (0.94–1.30) 0.2122 1.12 (0.94–1.35) 0.2114
 6–11 years 1.44 (1.26–1.66) 0.0000 1.53 (1.32–1.78) 0.0000 1.46 (1.23–1.73) 0.0000
 12 years or more 1.33 (1.09–1.63) 0.0055 1.4 (1.09–1.72) 0.0068 1.30 (0.97–1.73) 0.0764
Caste          
 Forward caste 1    1    1   
 Backward castes 1.17 (0.99–1.37) 0.0638 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 0.1152 1.34 (1.09–1.65) 0.0050
 Scheduled castes 1.30 (1.08–1.57) 0.0053 1.25 (1.02–1.54) 0.0355 1.59 (1.25–2.02) 0.0002
 Scheduled tribes 1.19 (0.92–1.54) 0.1843 1.17 (0.89–1.55) 0.2629 1.30 (0.92–1.82) 0.1369
Religion          
 Hindu 1    1    1   
 Muslim 1.05 (0.85–1.30) 0.6579 1.06 (0.82–1.37) 0.6529 0.96 (0.72–1.28) 0.7711
 Other religions 0.79 (0.57–1.08) 0.1392 0.81 (0.56–1.16) 0.2414 1.55 (0.62–3.91) 0.3534
States          
 Other states 1    1    1   
 High-focus states 1.22 (1.04–1.43) 0.0149 1.27 (1.06–1.52) 0.0095    
 Northeastern states 5.94 (3.80–9.29) 0.0000 6.73 (3.95–11.46) 0.0000    
Urban/rural residence          
 Urban 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.2630     0.88 (0.66–1.16) 0.3545
 Rural 1       1   
Wealth quintile          
 Lowest 1    1    1   
 Lower 0.76 (0.66–0.88) 0.0002 0.75 (0.64–0.87) 0.0001 0.76 (0.64–0.90) 0.0015
 Middle 0.78 (0.66–0.92) 0.0040 0.80 (0.67–0.96) 0.0150 0.81 (0.65–1.01) 0.0591
 Richer 0.55 (0.45–0.67) 0.0000 0.51 (0.41–0.63) 0.0000 0.53 (0.41–0.70) 0.0000
 Richest 0.39 (0.31–0.49) 0.0000 0.35 (0.26–0.45) 0.0000 0.36 (0.26–0.51) 0.0000
Parity 0.93 (0.89–0.97) 0.0006 0.93 (0.89–0.97) 0.0008 0.95 (0.91–1.00) 0.0524
  1. *Analysis is restricted only to clusters where at least one woman reported seeing an ASHA