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Table 4 Demographic characteristics of the study sample in IHDS-I (2005) and IHDS-II (2012) surveys

From: The impact of India’s accredited social health activist (ASHA) program on the utilization of maternity services: a nationally representative longitudinal modelling study

  2005 2012
  Total population Total population
  N = 11 670 % N = 13 881 %
Maternal age (years)     
 15–19 438 3.75% 294 2.12%
 20–24 3 361 28.80% 3 180 22.91%
 25–29 3 979 34.10% 5 051 36.39%
 30–34 2 241 19.20% 3 197 23.03%
 35–39 1 180 10.11% 1 455 10.48%
 ≥ 40 471 4.04% 704 5.07%
Education     
 No education 5 312 45.52% 4 592 33.08%
 1–5 years 1 774 15.20% 2 042 14.71%
 6–11 years 3 287 28.17% 5 101 36.75%
 12 years or more 1 091 9.35% 2 139 15.41%
 Missing 204 1.75% 8 0.06%
Caste     
 Forward caste 3 012 25.81% 3 512 25.30%
 Other backward castes 4 953 42.44% 5 919 42.64%
 Scheduled castes 2 706 23.19% 3 230 23.27%
 Scheduled tribes 999 8.56% 1 191 8.58%
 Missing    29 0.21%
Religion     
 Hindu 9 413 80.66% 11 152 80.34%
 Muslim 1 627 13.94% 2 121 15.28%
 Others religions 630 5.40% 608 4.38%
States     
 Other states 5 212 44.66% 6 081 43.81%
 High-focus states 6 148 52.68% 7 278 52.43%
 Northeast states 310 2.66% 522 3.76%
Urban/rural residence     
 Rural 8 625 73.91% 9 886 71.22%
 Urban 3 045 26.09% 3 995 28.78%
Wealth quintile     
 Lowest 3 475 29.78% 3 766 27.13%
 Lower 2 688 23.03% 2 918 21.02%
 Middle 2 248 19.26% 2 553 18.39%
 Richer 1 791 15.35% 2 440 17.58%
 Richest 1 467 12.57% 2 204 15.88%