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Table 1 Nurse prescribing laws, years of adoption and groups of nurses authorised to prescribe medications, 13 countries

From: Nurse prescribing of medicines in 13 European countries

Year first adoptedCountryRegulationGroup(s) of nurses authorised to prescribe (qualification requirements)
1992UKMedicinal Products: Prescription by Nurses etc. Act 1992(i) Independent prescribers (full prescribing rights since 2006; including certain controlled drugs since 2012, course on independent nurse prescribing required (NMC approved post-registration prescribing programme e.g. v200 or v300 course, length varies, e.g. 30–45 UK credits, typically 6 months; as of September 2019, new standards apply), this includes Community Practitioner Nurse Prescribers (CPNP) with prescribing rights according to a formulary (e.g. V100 or V150, e.g. 10 UK credits), (ii) Supplementary prescribers since 1992 (limited prescribing rights, approved course as a supplementary prescriber)
1994SwedenLawRN (Bachelor from university or university college, 180 ECTS)
2002NorwayLawPublic health nurse specialisation (Bachelor, plus 60 ECTS)
2007IrelandPharmacy Act, Statutory Instrument No. 201/2007 on Medicinal ProductsNurse prescriber: RN plus additional, approved educational programme (range 20 to 40 ECTS for nurse prescriber certificate or higher if Master APN programme)
2009DenmarkOrder 1219 of 11/12/2009 delegation of reserved proceduresRN (Bachelor, of which 30 ECTS “cluster” on medical treatment, including prescribing)
2010FinlandDecree 1088/2010 on PrescriptionsNurse prescriber: RN (Bachelor, with postgraduate education in prescribing (45 ECTS)
2012NetherlandsDecree, December 21/2011Nurse specialist (Verpleegkundig Specialist) (Master APN, 120 ECTS)
2012CyprusNursing and Midwifery Law, Annex III, 2b) VAPN nurse (Master APN degree with specialisation in Midwifery, ICU, Mental Health, Oncology, Community health). Advanced pharmacology (6 ECTS) is part of the Master APN programme
2014NetherlandsDecree of 2014Diabetes, lung, oncology nurses (Bachelor, and completion of pharmacotherapy course at a University of Applied Science, e.g. for diabetes and lung nurses, curricula comprise minimum of 2.5 ECTS on prescribing
2015PolandOrdinance of 28/10/2015 on prescriptions issued by nurses and midwivesTwo-tiered: RN with (i) Master and (ii) Bachelor’s degree
2015SpainRoyal Decree 954/2015 of 23 OctoberRN (Bachelor with min. 1 year work experience; or additional training in prescribing if < 1 year experience)
2016EstoniaHealth Services Organization Act 2016Family nurse (pereõde) if working with a family doctor (pereast) with completed training of 120 hours (clinical pharmacology, approved by the Agency of Medicines)
2017FranceAct 2016-41 on the modernisation of the health systemNurse (“Medical auxillaires”)
2017Switzerland (Vaud)Article 124b of Public Health Act 800.01Nurse specialist (Master) (“Infirmier practicien spécialisé”)
  1. ANP advanced nursing practice, APN advanced practice nurse, CPD continuous professional development, RN registered nurse, sources: [16, 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45]