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Table 4 Comparison of health and social outputs and outcomes in South African indigent households

From: Effectiveness of a large-scale, sustained and comprehensive community health worker program in improving population health: the experience of an urban health district in South Africa

Intervention vs control households   Odds ratio (2 × 2 table)* 2-tailed p value
Health and social outputs
 Access to social support services Received any social grant (old age, child care and disability grant) 1.3 0.004
Had SA birth certificate or ID 4.9 0.001
 Self-reported health seeking behavior Use of family planning 0.5 0.01
Improvements in early access to health care in last 12 months 3.93 0.169
 Health awareness and knowledge (based on knowledge score) HIV status 1.79 0.481
Tuberculosis 1.62 0.43
Hypertension 1.28 0.47
Diabetes 0.92 0.73
Health outcomes
 Self-reported morbidity (from household interviews) Chronic condition diagnosed and on treatment in members 2.4 0.002
Chronic condition well controlled in last 12 months in households 1.6 0.0001
Immunized child 4.3 0.039
Early antenatal care (< 20 weeks) 2.3 0.33
Healthy children 0.3 0.0001
Safe pregnancy 0.07 0.0001
  1. Statistically significant p values (< 0.05) were also in bold
  2. *Where odds ratios > 1 (in bold), it is in favour of intervention households; where odds ratios < 1, control households did better