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Table 2 IM tasks according to the related activities

From: WHO competency framework for health authorities and institutions to manage infodemics: its development and features

Domain (1)

1. Infodemic management


1.1 Coordinate, facilitate and strengthen

Main tasks:

• Develop or adopt a taxonomy of classifications for mis/disinformation as a reference framework for IM

• Promote and ensure coordination among the different domains and tasks of IM

• Develop partnerships with organizations that are active in IM

• Promote ethical conduct in IM to avoid the spread and propagation of harmful health information, as well as unintended harm from all actions

Domain (2)

2. Prepare and monitor


2.1 Listen

Main tasks:

• Analyze and evaluate individuals’ behaviors, focusing on personal, social and environmental determinants

• Identify people’s topics of interest

• Detect information deficits and open questions in the offline and online populations

• Identify, analyze and evaluate the evidence-basis of the main narratives and claims over health issues circulating in the population


2.2 Inform

Main tasks:

• Develop and tailor messages for different populations, utilizing appropriate communication strategies, communication media and channels

• Pretest messages among target populations and in different media

• Measure the effectiveness of messages in time and media

• Partner with medical associations, nongovernmental organizations, traditional and social media, and tech companies to target different stakeholders in the health system

• Promote credibility and trust in health authorities and service delivery

Domain (3)

3. Detect and intervene


3.1 Intervene

Main tasks:

• Define the objective of the single intervention or of the multiple interventions, and the target populations

• Identify barriers to and facilitators of the planned objective in the target population

• Define a model of change and clarify processes which will be used to assess the efficacy of the intervention

• Define the various levels the intervention covers, from policy and health system to community and individual levels

• Produce the interventions and implement them


3.2 Counter

Main tasks:

• Build or strengthen reporting tools and processes to identify and analyze mis/disinformation

• Track mis/disinformation, check facts and trends over time

• Work in partnership with stakeholders to identify and act on mis/disinformation rapidly


3.3 Monitor

Main tasks:

• Collect and collate data related to interventions and messages

• Estimate the impact of the interventions

• Transfer the findings of interventions to improve mis/disinformation correction and management


3.4 Support

Main tasks:

• Design, implement and evaluate interventions to build and strengthen resilience against mis/disinformation, tailored to individual communities and vulnerable populations

• Measure community involvement and empowerment

• Integrate measures for infodemic resilience into health system standard reporting processes

Domain (4)

4. Strengthen


4.1 Prepare

Main tasks

• Promote building, revision and adoption of policies for IM

• Embed IM modules and indicators in all relevant aspects of the public health response

• Support and promote interdisciplinarity in institutions’ IM


4.2 Ongoing monitoring and strategy refinement

Main tasks

• Identify and address gaps in IM program design and service delivery

• Use implementation research evidence in program improvement and policy development

• Document IM processes, analyses and outputs for future use

• Promote shared interventions and approaches between countries, including the assessment of factors affecting the transferability of interventions


4.3 Building capacity

Main tasks

• Assess IM training needs within the institution

• Set organizational training objectives and create training action plans

• Define and plan for internally provided or outsourced training

• Implement training initiatives

• Evaluate and revise training

• Integrate infodemic training within the main processes and services for employees of the institution